**CHAPTER 15: WHAT ARE “GRAVITY WAVES” ??**

**“Gravity is an EMERGENT phenomenon” —Erik Verlinde, Dutch PhD-holder **

Recently I attended an excellent presentation (at Princeton’s **Institute for Advanced** **Study**) regarding the recent observation of **“gravity waves.”** Though Einstein predicted them, and though many researchers have, for many years, tried to observe them, it seems that the folks at **LIGO [Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory] **have made the first successful observation and measurement of gravity waves.

According to the presenters, the observed and measured gravity waves were from two “black holes” —(each containing the mass of approx. 30 of our suns)— which merged together with each other, producing a larger and more massive “black hole”.

However, Dr. Ernest Sternglass’s model **[Ref.#1]** predicts exactly the opposite: his **Electron-Positron Pair Model of Matter** predicts that a certain kind of object, {it can have almost **any** mass, from that of a galaxy to that of a pi-meson}, will eventually divide in half, producing two objects, each containing half the mass. He calls these objects “cosmological systems” — and says that his model predicts that there are millions of them throughout our universe, and that they constitute the vast majority of the **“dark matter”** in our universe, and that, every once in a while, a **big** one will explode, producing a **“quasar”** — also called a “gamma-ray burster.”

Sternglass calls these explosions “delayed mini-Bangs” — and says that his model predicts them to be happening during all the time since the start of the “Big Bang.” He says that these delayed mini-Bangs are very similar to the Big Bang, but involve less matter and energy, and that, like the Big Bang, each delayed mini-Bang also produces many trillions of neutrons, most of which quickly “decay” — producing protons.

**IN OTHER WORDs: if Sternglass is right about this, then the standard model’s explanation for “quasars” is TOTALLY WRONG: because the standard model explains a “quasar” as the result of a very large “black hole” sucking in some surrounding ordinary matter, causing some of that matter’s energy to radiate outwardly, according to Einstein’s famous E = mc2. **

According to Sternglass, NOTHING GETS SUCKED IN, and large amounts of stuff come out, including high-energy gamma rays, and newly formed protons + neutrons. So these objects are more like **WHITE HOLES !! **{Please refer to the **END-NOTE, **below}

Therefore, based on Sternglass’s model, I predict that astronomers and astrophysicists will eventually realize that the “gravity wave” signals which the folks at **LIGO **observed are from an object which contained the mass of approx. 60 of our suns, which divided in half, producing two objects with approx. 30 solar masses each.

If this be true, then one can use Sternglass’s theory to predict when the **next** signal from these two objects will arrive, as they divide in half again, producing four objects, each containing approx. 15 solar masses.

The formula is easy and simple:

**T = (4.9 x 10^20 seconds) x [the square root of (Mobject / Muniverse)], **where **“T” **is elapsed time until the next signal, **“Mobject”** is the mass of the object which divides in half, **“Muniverse”** is the mass of our universe, and “**10^20″ **means “ten to the 20th power” — i.e., a one with 20 zeros after it.

Using this formula, one can calculate that astronomers might receive the next gravity wave signals from the system after approx. 31.5 years. While this is a long time to wait for a signal, I’m predicting it, based on Sternglass’s theory.

Hopefully, as the folks at **LIGO **improve their techniques, they will eventually observe some gravity wave signals from an object whose mass is approx. that of our sun. In fact, the gravity-wave signal observed on 17 August 2017 is said to have come from a system with a total mass of approx. 2.74 x the mass of our sun, i.e., approx. 5.48 x 10^33 grams. Using the formula above, one can calculate that one might expect the next signal to arrive from this system approx. 6 years and 171 days after the previous signal arrived; plus or minus approx. 1.03 year, due to uncertainty regarding the orientation to our line-of-sight of the system which produced the signal. This means that one can predict that the next signal from this system might arrive at some time between 23 January 2023 and 14 February 2025.

Likewise, regarding the signal which arrived on 14 September 2015, one can predict that the next signal might arrive from this system approximately 31.5 years after that date, plus or minus 5.04 years. I.e., one can estimate the predicted arrival-time to be between 27 February 2042 and 29 March 2052. As one can say: “Oy, veh — I should live so long !!”

Sincerely, Mark Creek-water Dorazio, ApE (amateur-physics-enthusiast), Princeton, New Jersey, USA, 2-March-2016

**END-NOTE: It’s known that many of the so-called “cosmic rays” which strike our planet’s upper atmosphere are actually high-speed protons, which have traveled to us from other galaxies, moving at no less than 99.9999 % of the speed of light. Some of these are, no doubt, newly formed in a distant quasar out there, in another galaxy. Please note that these extremely relativistic objects need approximately 10^20 eV or so of kinetic energy [i.e., no less than approximately 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 electron-volts each] to avoid going around in circles between our galaxy and the one from which they originated, due to the presence of small magnetic fields in those intergalactic spaces. Of course, the only way a proton can carry that much kinetic energy is by moving at almost the speed of light.**

**########### << END OF CHAPTER 15 >> ###########**

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