by  Mark Creek-water Dorazio,  amateur physics enthusiast,  Newark, Delaware, USA,   21 December 2014,  email:

“All these results convinced me that there would be no need to postulate some as-yet-unknown form of dark matter particles producing new types of forces that were being widely discussed in the literature [early 1980s] as perhaps constituting the invisible or ‘missing’ matter in the universe” [Dr. Ernest Sternglass, p.211, Ref.#1].

The short answer to the question posed in the title of this essay is that a chunk of “dark matter” is the seed of a “quasar.”  The long answer, which explains the short answer, occupies the remainder of the essay.

Almost every physics book in the entire known universe presents “dark matter” as one of the outstanding mysteries of physics.  What folks call “dark matter” is a kind of “stuff” which Dr. Sternglass describes, very specifically, but which other theorists only hint at, very speculatively, and with no real theory or model to offer to solve the “mystery”.  For example, John Archibald Wheeler once hypothesized the existence of what he called “mass without mass” [p.237, Ref.#24], which had mass and energy content, but no protons or neutrons.

The “cosmological systems” [cosmo.systs] [p.234, Ref.#1] in Sternglass’s model are like that:  each cosmo.syst has a strong magnetic field, and mass, and energy content, but no protons or neutrons.  In Sternglass’s model, these “cosmological systems” are the “seeds” [Sternglass’s word] of protons + neutrons:  a large cosmo.syst produces —(one wants to say “creates” !!)— a large collection of protons + neutrons, + other stuff, which then condenses, forming a large system of “ordinary” stuff, such as a star or galaxy.  Likewise, a small cosmo.syst produces (“creates” or “births”) a small system, perhaps a planet or a moon.  Thus the model explains the origin of all the protons and neutrons which now exist;  plus, it explains the distribution patterns of the many many differently-sized “systems” in our universe — (planets + stars + star clusters + “globular clusters” + small galaxys + large galaxys + galaxy clusters, etc.).  Sternglass details this in his “Table 1”  [p.234, Ref.#1].



Following the model which Georges Lemaitre proposed during the early 20th century, (which one can “google”),  Sternglass shows the physical possibility that our universe once consisted of only one entity, the “primeval atom” of Lemaitre’s model.  Lemaitre calls this massively massive entity an “egg” — while Sternglass calls it a “seed” — the “seed of our universe.”  He says that its electromagnetic field [EM-field] was huge, essentially the size of our universe.

{For me, it’s easier to visualize the immense EM-field than the “atom” — so I visualize the “primeval atom” as only that:  a humongously large electromagnetic field}

According to this Sternglass-Lemaitre model, the primeval atom initially contained all the energy which eventually produced our entire universe, but there were no protons or neutrons, yet —– only pure electrical energy.  This primeval atom —(and its EM-field)— divided in half, and each piece divided in half, and each of them divided in half, and so on and so forth.  After many zillions of divide-in-half events, there were zillions of smaller systems, with smaller EM-fields.  I call this divide-in-half scenario “the count-down to the Big Bang.”  Sternglass calls these smaller systems “cosmological systems” [cosmo.systs], regardless of their mass, which might be that of a star or galaxy, or that of a sub-atomic “particle.”  He says that, for each cosmo.syst, regardless of its size or mass, “the mass is proportional to the square of the radius, as if the mass were a plane disk of constant density, exactly the kind of system into which old spiral galaxies collapse … [which] is also the relation between mass and size of large vortices such as hurricanes and tornados” [p.225, Ref.#1].

He says that each cosmo.syst consists of an electron-positron pair, hence the name of his model:  “the electron-positron pair model of matter.”  He says that the e and p in a cosmo.syst “rotate” or “orbit” around each other so that the edge of their electromagnetic field moves at almost the speed of light, and that there is “no upper limit” to the amount of energy (and therefore mass) which such a rotating “relativistic electron-positron pair system” [p.175, Ref.#1] can contain.

A full reading of Sternglass’s book reveals his disdain for much of what particle theorists have done during the past 40 years, as the following quote shows:

“By 1994, I had worked out the details of the embryonic structure of the universe [without proposing any new particles] … [meanwhile] many as-yet-undetected new kinds of particles have been proposed by [standard model] particle theorists in the last two decades.  But despite many searches in high-energy experiments and among cosmic rays, none have been found” [pp.245+246, Ref.#1] …..



“Do not add new things without necessity” —–William of Occam, 14th century English Franciscan monk, and scientist, excommunicated by the pope.

To understand Sternglass’s work, one should also understand the work of Dr. Menahem Simhony, (age 92, in 2015), which supports + affirms that of Sternglass:  sadly, Dr. Simhony, too, is almost unknown, for some of the same reasons why Sternglass is.  Almost all of Simhony’s work is on the internet:  go to  —– or, google “SIMHONY TRIBUTE”.

At,  most of the reviews of Sternglass’s book are positive.  Personally,  I’ve found Sternglass’s model, which he details in his book [Ref.#1], to be very helpful to answer some of the questions which other books and web-sites raise, and for which they have no answers.  For example,  here’s a quote from Dr. Douglas Pinnow’s internet-site,  http://www.DARKMATTERPHYSICS.INFO [Ref.#10]:

Referring to “dark matter” Pinnow says:  “It’s a truly amazing fact that most of the matter in the universe has not yet been seen nor identified.”

Dr. Sternglass explains that much of the “dark matter” in our universe is in the “fragments of the original primeval atom [of Georges Lemaitre’s model  [please google it if you need to]  ejected to large distances in the explosive ‘mini-Bang’ that had to accompany the formation of every cosmological structure [ie, every moon, planet, star, galaxy,  etc.] in a Lemaitre-type model … the existence of quasars and active cores of galaxies over a wide range of distances indicated that there were apparently delayed mini-Bangs in which new galaxies were created, as Maarten Schmidt had conjectured, together with vast amounts of dust and gas ejected into space” [p.211, Ref.#1].

Plus:  “All these results strongly suggested that some of the original fragments … from the Lemaitre [“primeval”] atom had managed to survive in the massive centers of large galaxies for very long periods … these massive electron[-positron] pair fragments were apparently ejected long after the Big Bang, as the Russian astrophysicist Novokov and the Israeli physicist Ne’eman had in fact suggested independently in the mid-1960s … their nuclei would be so massive that they would be invisible black holes, yet they could account for a dominant fraction of the total mass of the universe even today” [p.212, Ref.#1].

According to Sternglass’s model, these fragments of the primeval atom are “seeds of galaxies and stars”, and are spread throughout our universe, ever since the Big Bang.  He says that a seed remains dormant for millions or billions of years, lurking lurking in space, and then, after a long “count-down” process, during which the system divides in half, again + again + again,  it suddenly explodes, violently.  He calls this explosion a “mini-Bang”, and says that the “gamma-ray bursters” —(also called “quasars”)— which astronomers have observed since the 1970s, are in fact the “delayed mini-Bangs” which his model predicts:

“That the evolution of the universe is continuing seems to be borne out by astronomical observations over the last three decades, which show matter being ejected from compact, massive, active [centers] of galaxies, originally called quasi-stellar objects or ‘quasars’ … These extremely powerful objects could arise from as-yet-incompletely divided seed pairs remaining from the Big Bang” [p.6, Ref.#1].

PLUS:  “because there was no upper limit to the energy contained in the relativistic electron-positron system … I realized that a higher energy version of this microscopic structure could in principle form the seed of stars, galaxies, and the entire universe, as difficult as this was to contemplate” [p.175, Ref.#1].

Sternglass mentions in his book that the ideas of astronomer Victor Ambartsumian helped him come to this conclusion.  Ambartsumian “was the first to suggest that nuclei of galaxies were able to eject matter on such a scale as to give birth … to whole [smaller] galaxies — a view completely different from the classical one [which says that] galaxies condensed [slowly] from the primeval gas filling the universe” [Ref.#9, p.134].

“Ambartsumian had found many examples where smaller galaxies seemed to have been ejected from larger ones in chain-like arrangements” [p.170, Ref.#1].

MORE DETAILS:  “In the early 1970s … radio astronomy had already led to the discovery of galaxies emitting powerful fluxes of of radio waves … from the … central parts of galaxies, or from two galaxy-size plasma blobs symmetrically disposed with respect to the parent galaxy … These observations indicated that nuclei of galaxies were able to eject beams of matter and energy, from a region with quite small dimensions, in an unexpectedly efficient way [MY EMPHASIS] … culminat[ing] in the discovery of quasars, objects still more powerful and compact” [Ref.#9, p.134].

Note:  Dr. Halton Arp [Ref.#11] spent many years, almost until his death in 2012, studying this phenomenon, and collected some very large amounts of photographic and other kinds of evidence for it.  He is one of the better-known astronomers to offer evidence that the standard model might be, to say it politely, “not quite right.”

{ The youtube-videos (above) feature Dr. Arp, along with Drs. Margaret and Geoffrey Burbidge, and also Sir Fred Hoyle, a famous genius or near-genius in his field.  The videos explain many details re this amazing phenomenon, which involves a high-energy “engine” at the center of a galaxy ejecting the “seed” [Sternglass’s word] of a smaller galaxy, something which the standard model just simply does not consider possible !!  Sternglass mentions Dr. Arp in his book, which is how I first learned about Arp’s important work }

The amount of energy which a “quasar” or a “gamma-ray burster” radiates is exactly in accord with the Sternglass-LeMaitre model.  The large “cosmological systems” in Sternglass’s model are, in effect, gigantic electrical capacitors (details in APPENDIX2) — able to temporarily store enough energy to produce a star or galaxy.  This “temporary” storage time might be for millions or billions of years.  These are the “seeds” which get ejected from larger systems and then form smaller systems:  in his book  [Ref.#1]  Sternglass details how this happens, and cites Dr. Arp’s work (see previous paragraph) as evidence.

The cosmological systems [cosmo.systs] in Sternglass’s model were/are pure energy,  in the form of electromagnetic fields.  Each had/has a “shelf-life” of a specific number of years, perhaps > a billion years [Table 1, p.234, Ref.#1];  then —{shifting to the present tense}— it explodes violently, producing a “mini-Bang” — as Sternglass calls them.  He says that the source of this violent energy, (pound-for-pound more powerful than an H-bomb), is in a “phase-transition” [pp.11-12, Ref.1] in which the ep-pairs, (whose EM-fields had constituted pure energy), re-configure in a way which leads to the production of protons.  In other words, the pure energy which existed before the Big Bang suddenly condenses, forming zillions of neutrons, most of which quickly “decay”, producing protons.  Thus the model explains the origin of all the protons and neutrons !!

“The explosive creation of protons accompanied by other particles in the final stage of division may explain the mysterious gamma-ray bursts detected by satellites for decades and recently found to come from the centers of newly evolving distant galaxies, exactly as Lemaitre had predicted” [p.5, Ref.#1].

{ Note:  one can visualize this energy releasing proton+neutron producing phase-transition as the collapse of the electric potential [i.e., the voltage] of a very very very large capacitor.  This collapse is so violent that it creates tiny whirlpools [vortexes] of swirling pure energy, which one can also visualize as rotating ep-pairs, as Sternglass does.  Because there’s no friction to slow the little rascals down, they’re still swirling, or rotating, or orbiting, or oscillating, with essentially the same amount of energy —(and angular momentum)— which they had billions of years ago, at the start of the Big Bang }

{Using standard math-formulas for capacitance, given in some electrical engineering textbooks, one can derive a formula for the amount of work (= energy) needed, theoretically, to charge up a capacitor the size of our universe.  More details in APPENDIX2}

Sternglass says that not all of the “seeds of galaxies and stars” explode at the same time, as each is on its own cosmic time schedule, due to the relativistic effects  of its own very large gravity.  So there might be unexploded “seeds” at the center of our galaxy, and of other galaxies.  These “seeds” can be of any size, from that of a pi-meson, to that of a star, or larger.  These are possibly the sources for the powerful gamma rays (each containing 5 to 11 billion electron-volts) which Dr. Pinnow talks about [Ref.#10].

The biggest seeds, (i.e., seeds of “supercomplexes of galaxies” [p.234, Ref.#1]), are mainly at the far edges of our universe.  Seeds of large galaxies are around the edges of complexes, while seeds of small galaxies are around the edges of large galaxies, and so on.  (Note: our home galaxy (the “Milky Way”) is a large galaxy).  Sternglass’s model predicts that the objects in space which astronomers observe are arranged in these kinds of “hierarchical” patterns.  He says that Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) also believed this.

Plus, seeds of smaller systems might be located at the centers of larger systems:  this is why astronomers observe large galaxies which seem to have spit out seeds of smaller galaxies, (as already mentioned), which are then identified as “quasars.”  The two videos re Dr. Halton Arp’s work, (above), are all about this phenomenon.

Regarding this phenomenon —{[ which has, by the way, generated some robust denials from standard model believers (because the standard model has no explanation for such powerful ejections) ]}— Sternglass says that “entire stellar associations and larger systems such as galaxies that contain by now many burned out white dwarf stars, neutron stars, or black holes would also have been ejected from the central clusters in the largest systems … This would explain the recent discovery of stars far from any galaxy, as well as a surprising number of very large, dim spiral galaxies containing only very old stars apparently ejected from the centers of superclusters at the time of the Big Bang” [p.245, Ref.#1].


As already mentioned:  in Sternglass’s model, the “seeds of galaxies and stars” are remnants of the original “primeval atom” —–from the theory of Georges LeMaitre, which one can google for details.  Sternglass says that the “phase-transition”  which caused the “big bang” explosion, though very very powerful, involved “only a per cent of so of all the matter in the universe … As a result, when the initial formation of helium and other low-mass elements such as lithium occurred a few seconds or minutes into the Big Bang, the process of element formation involved only a few per cent of all the mass in the universe” [p.246, Ref.#1].  The remainder is still out there, lurking, in an unexploded form, not like any of the “known” forms of matter, and not able to emit light, so one can not see it.  THIS IS WHAT “DARK-MATTER” IS:  unexploded pieces of the primeval atom, each on its own cosmic time schedule, presently “dormant”, but possibly to explode, at any time, in a “delayed mini-Bang” [Sternglass’s phrase], which future astronomers might observe, and which they might call a “gamma-ray burster” or a “quasar.”  Sternglass says that his model predicts these “delayed mini-Bangs” to be happening, regularly, during all the time since the start of the “Big Bang” [p.258, Ref.#1].


$$$$$$$$$$$ << END OF CHAPTER 1 >> $$$$$$$$$$$


One comment on “CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS “DARK MATTER” ??

  1. Pingback: book-title: VISUALIZE-ING “QUARKs” — sub-title: Essays re the Work of DR. ERNEST STERNGLASS + DR. MENAHEM SIMHONY | markcreekwater

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