#1) Sternglass, Ernest;  book:  Before the Big Bang (1997);
#1a) Sternglass, Ernest;  paper:  “Relativistic Electron-pair Systems and the Structure of Neutral Mesons”;  Physical Review, v.123, pp. 391-398 (1-JULY-1961);
#2) Simhony, Menahem;  internet-site:  http://www.EPOLA.org;
#2a) Simhony, Menahem;  book, 160 pages:  The Electron-Positron Lattice Space (1990);

#2b) ibid.;  book, 294 pages:  Invitation to the Natural Physics of Matter, Space, and Radiation (1994);

#2c) ibid.;  book, 70 pages:  The Story of Matter and Space (1999);

3) Grathman, Roy;  quote:  “the proton is always plucking at the corners of the epola-cell in-side-of which it’s located”, in an e-mail to me, (approx. 2011);  NOTE: this gentleman is familiar with Dr.SIMHONY’s model, and one of my main informants re it;  plus, he’s one of the PhD-holders whom I have inform’d re Dr.STERNGLASS’s model;

(4)  Dorazio, Mark Creek-water;  essay:  “A Semi-classical Calculation Regard-ing Proton-radius” (2013);
(5)  ibid.;  essay:  “A Semi-classical Calculation re the Mass-density of so-call’d ‘Neutron-stars’ ” (2013);
(6)  ibid.;  essay:  “Lattice-Length of the Epola-cell” (2014);

(7)  McTaggart, Lynne;  book:  The Field (2002);

(8)  Wolff, Milo;  book:  Schroedinger’s Universe and the Origin of the Natural Laws (2008);

(8a) Wolff, Milo;  Youtube-video:  “Milo Wolff – Wave Structure of Matter”;

(9)  Van der Merwe, Alwyn (editor);  book:  Old and New Questions in Physics, Cosmology, Philosophy, and Theoretical Biology (1983);

(10)  Pinnow, Douglas;  internet-site:;

(11)  Arp, Halton;  book:  Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies (1966);

(11a)  ibid.;  Youtube-video:  “Harton Arp Intrinsic Red Shift”;

(11b)  ibid.;  Youtube-video:  “Universe – Episode 1 – The Cosmology Quest – The Electric Universe and Plasma Physics”;

(12)  Impey, Chris;  book:  How It Began (2012), p.298;
(13)  Thorne, Kip;  book:  Black Holes and Time Warps (1994);
(14)  Baade, Walter + Zwicky, Fritz;  paper:  “Supernovae and Cosmic Rays”,  Phys Rev, (15-JANUARY-1934);
(15)  Demorest, P.B., + others;  paper:  “A Two-solar-mass Neutron Star Measured Using Shapiro Delay”, Nature, (28-OCTOBER-2010); —–> (SEE QUOTE BELOW) <—–
(16)  Melia, Fulvio;  book:  High-Energy Astrophysics (2009);
(17)  Kragh, Helge;  book:  Quantum Generations (1999), pp. 322-324;
(18)  Kragh, Helge;  book:  Dirac: A Scientific Biography (1990);
(19)  Dirac, Paul;  book:  Directions in Physics (1978);
(20)  Antognini, A., + others;  paper:  “The Proton Radius Puzzle”, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, v.312, n.3 (2011);
(21)  Stern, David P.;  NASA-article:  “Principles of the Magnetic Trapping of Charged Particles” (2001),
(22)  Paul, Wolfgang;  paper:  “Electromagnetic Traps for Charged and Neutral Particles”, Rev.Mod.Phys., v62, n3, July 1990;
(23)  Gomer, V., et al;  paper:  “Magnetostatic Traps for Charged and Neutral Particles”, Hyperfine Interactions, 109 (1997) 281-292;
(24)  Wheeler, J.A.;  book:  Geons, Black Holes, and Quantum Foam (1998);
(25)  Black, Adam (editor-in-chief);  book:  The Feynamn Lectures on Physics, definitive edition (2006);
(26)  Kuhn, Thomas;  book:  The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962);
(27)  Ford, Kenneth W.;  book:  The Quantum World (2004);
(28)  Motz, Lloyd;  paper:  Nuovo Cimento, 26, 1 (1962);
(29)  Motz, Lloyd;  paper:  “The Unit Gravitational Charge Solves the Cosmological Problem Without Inflation” (1983 ??), bulletin, Columbia University Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics;
(30)  Pickering, Andrew;  book:  Constructing Quarks: A Sociological History of Particle Physics (1984);
(31)  Unzicker, Alexander;  book:  The Higgs Fake:  How Particle Physicis Fooled the Nobel Committee (2013);
(32)  Thornhill, Wallace;  Youtube-video:  “Deep Impact: Confirming the Electric Comet”;
(33)  Baggott, Jim;  book:  The Quantum Story (2011);
(34)  Friedlander, Michael W.;  book:  A Thin Cosmic Rain (2000);
(35)  Susskind, Leonard;  book:  The Black Hole War (2008);
(36)  Bethe, Hans + Morrison, Philip;  book:  Elementary Nuclear Theory (1947, 1956);
(37)  Brooks, Michael;  book:  Thirteen Things That Don’t Make Sense (2008);
(38)  Morrison, Philip;  book:  Nothing Is Too Wonderful to Be True (1995);
(39)  Krauss, Lawrence;  book:  Quantum Man (2011);
(40)  t’Hooft, Gerard;  book:  In Search of the Ultimate Building Blocks (1997);
(41)  Fleming, Ray;  paper:  “A tau particle model based on the Sternglass theory” (2014),
(42a)  Sternglass, Ernest;  paper:  “NEW EVIDENCE FOR A MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF MESON AND BARYON RESONANCE STATES”, from the Proceedings of the 2nd Resonance Particles Conference (1965);

(42b)  Sternglass, Ernest;  paper:  “Electron-pair theory of meson structure and the interactions of nuclear particles, Proceedings of the American Physical Society (1964), 

(42c)  Sternglass, Ernest;  chapter in the book NUCLEON STRUCTURE (1964), edited by Robert Hofstadter + Leonard Schiff:  “Evidence for a Molecular Structure of Heavy Mesons”, 

(42d)  Sternglass, Ernest;  paper:  “Electron-positron model for the charged mesons and pion resonances”,  IL NUOVO CIMENTO 35(1): 227-260 (December 1964), 

(43)  Hall, Jonathan, M., et al;  paper:  “On the Structure of the Lambda 1405”, Proceedings of the 32nd Int’l Symposium on Lattice Field Theory, 23-28 June 2014, Columbia University;

(44)  ibid.;  paper:  “Lattice QCD Evidence that the Lambda(1405) Resonance Is a K-Nucleon Molecule”, Phys.Rev.Lttrs., 114, 132002, (2015);

(45)  Dayton, Benjamin;  essay:  “Hydrodynamic Model of Neutral Pion”, Physics Essays, vol. 24, pp49-71, (2011);
$$$$$$$$$$$ << END OF REFERENCEs >> $$$$$$$$$$$
In Sternglass’s model he talks about “cosmological systems” [“cosmo.systs”], which are unlike ANYTHING in the so called “standard model” … {details re different kinds of cosmo.systs are in “TABLE 1”, p.234, Ref.#1} … According to the model, these “Sternglass.cosmo.systs” existed BEFORE THE BIG BANG, and contained mass, and therefore energy, but NO PROTONs and NO NEUTRONs, for the simple reason that each “cosmo.syst” is the “SEED” [Sternglass’s word] of protons + neutrons:  IN OTHER WORDs, Sternglass’s model explains the origin of ALL the protons + neutrons which now exist …
PLUS:  NOT ONLY DID THIS STUFF EXIST BEFORE THE BIG BANG, BUT SOME OF IT EXISTs RIGHT NOW, and constitutes the vast majority of so called “DARK MATTER” in our universe … It’s out there, LURKING, unseen and unseeable, in the vast regions between stars + galaxies … More details in CHAPTER 1 … 
Every PROTON-ELEMENT is actually, according to the model which I present in these essays, nothing but a tiny sternglass.cosmo.syst of a particular (pun intended) size + mass, and each consists of the simplest imaginable system:  an electron + a positron, orbiting around each other … Because their orbital velocity is so high, (it’s almost the speed of light), they are RELATIVISTIC electrons+ positrons, whose MASS is much greater than the “rest mass” of electrons + positrons … because they’re NOT RESTING, but moving at almost the speed of light:  in fact, Sternglass says that, because there is “no upper limit to the energy contained in the relativistic electron-positron pair system … I realized that a higher energy version of this microscopic structure could in principle form the seed of stars, galaxies, and the entire universe, as difficult as this was to contemplate” [p.175, Ref.#1] …
HERE IS AN EASY WAY to describe what the proton-element is:  According to Sternglass’s model, the “PRIMEVAL ATOM” [first proposed by Georges LeMaitre] divided in half, and each piece divided in half, and each of THOSE pieces divided in half, and so on, and so on:  each time when a system divided in half, the MASS of each of the two pieces decreased by a factor of 2, and their SIZE (i.e., the length of the RADIUS) decreased by a factor of the square-root of 2:  so the angular momentum, too, decreased every time when a system divided in half, because is (MASS) x (VELOCITY) x (RADIUS) …
Eventually, the size of the system was small enough so that its angular momentum was equal to 2 x [PLANCKsCONSTANT / 2x(pi)]:  … In physics jargon, this is a “SPIN-2 system” … This is the little rascal which I call the “proton-element” … As already mention’d [in CHAPTER 8], the MASS of a spin-2 sternglass.cosmo.syst is a bit less than 1/4 the mass of a proton:  so when 4 of them team up, along with an unpaired positron, they make a proton …
NOTE:  there are MORE DETAILs re this in CHAPTERs 4 and 8 …..
$$$$$$$ $$$$ << END OF APPENDIX1 >> $$$$$$$$$$$

NOTE:  as you read this attempt to model the “primeval atom[p.2, Ref.#1] as a gigantic electrical capacitor, please be aware that it is, at best, only a rough and approximate model … Firstly, because our universe is so unimaginably large and ancient, the electrical phenomena which we observe in our part of it, in this era, might be different from those which prevailed in former eras, and/or in other parts of our universe … Secondly, as an amateur physics enthusiast, my understanding of electrical phenomena is, to be honest, not very good:  hopefully, the ideas which I present here might inspire somebody with greater knowledge + skill to propose a better capacitor model …

ANYWAY, FOR WHAT IT’s WORTH:  one of the things which a capacitor can do is to temporarily store electrical energy, and release it “on demand” … If a capacitor were the size of our universe, as was the “primeval atom” in Sternglass’s model, then this “temporary” energy storage might be for millions or billions of years, as Sternglass describes the “temporary” life times of the LARGE “cosmological systems”  [“cosmo.systs”]  in his model [TABLE 1, p.234, Ref.#1] …

CONSIDER a CAPACITOR which consists of 2 metal cylinders, one inside the other, with a non-conductor in the small gap between them, to insulate them from each other … standard math formulas found in many ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING textbooks say that:

C  =  [ (permeability) x H ] / ln(B/A),   (EQN.#1),  where “C” is capacitance, “(permeability)” is the electrostatic permeability of space, a KNOWN quantity, “H” is the height of the cylinder, “ln” means “natural logarithm”,  “B” is the radius of the OUTER cylinder, and “A” is the radius of the INNER cylinder;  obviously, the gap between the 2 metal cylinders [ie, “plates”] is equal to  B – A …  So   (B – A) = D   (EQN.#2),  where “D” is the gap between the plates …

Using the IDENTITY  (permeability) = 1 / [ 4x(pi) x K ],  one sees that EQN.#1 implys:  C = H / [ 4x(pi) x K x ln(B/A) ]   (EQN.#1a),  where “K” is COULOMB’s ELECTROSTATIC-CONSTANT,  and “pi” is 3.1416 …

ONE CAN VISUALIZE twisting this cylinder into the shape of a TORUS [ie, a DONUT] until its “top” and “bottom” join, with the hole at the donut’s center having a radius of zero … So it looks more like a FAT BAGEL than a donut … One sees that the “height” has become a circle, whose length is equal to 2x(pi) x B … One sees that this circle is located inside the torus, half-way between its center hole and its edge …

Using EQN.#1a and doing a CAREFUL ANALYSIS of this new shape reveals a new formula for capacitance: C = [ 2x(pi) x B ] / [ 4x(pi) x K x ln(B/A) ] =  B / [ 2 x K x ln(B/A) ]  … Visualizing our universe as a gigantic torus, {to be consistent with one’s visualization of all the OTHER cosmo.systs as having that shape}, one sees that B”  ( and also “A” ) represents HALF of the radius of our universe, which one can call “R” … So one now has:  C = R / [ 4 x K x ln(B/A) ]   (EQN.3); 

{ NOTE:  one of the beautiful aspects of Sternglass’s model is that both the MASS and the RADIUS of our universe are KNOWN quantities [TABLE 1, p.234, Ref.#1] } 

From any electrical engineering textbook, one has:   W = Q^2 / (2 x C),   (EQN.#4),    where “W” is the amount of work [=energy] needed to charge up a capacitor, while “Q” is the resulting charge … As before, C” is capacitance …

One sees that, together, EQNs. #3 + #4 imply:   W = [ 2 x K x Q^2 x ln(B/A) ] / R   (EQN.#5);

EQN.#2 implies: B = A + D   (EQN.#2a);   so  ln(B/A) = ln( (A + D) / A ) = ln( 1 + D/A );   because  D/A  is VERY-SMALL,  one knows that  ln( 1 + D/A )  =  almost exactly  D/A;  because  “A” represents half of the radius of our universe, one has:  ln(B/A) = 2xD / R   (EQN.#6);

Combining EQNs. #5 + #6  gives:   W = [ 4 x (K x Q^2) x D ] / R^2   (EQN.#7);

NOTE:  because these equations model OUR UNIVERSE [actually, they model the PRIMEVAL ATOM in the STERNGLASS-LeMAITRE model of our universe, Ref.#1] as a GIGANTIC ELECTRICAL CAPACITOR, one can now make a few changes to illustrate this more forcefully …

First, one can change “W” to say “Mu x c^2”(where “Mu” is the mass of our universe)— on the assumption that the amount of “WORK” which our “MOTHER NATURE” did when she “created” our universe must in fact be equivalent to the TOTAL ENERGY CONTENT of our universe … Next, one can add a subscript to “R”,  to affirm that one is talking about the RADIUS OF OUR UNIVERSE, a KNOWN quantity in Sternglass’s model … So EQN.#7 becomes:  Mu x c^2  =  [ 4 x (K x Q^2) x D ] / (Ru)^2   (EQN.#7a),  where “Ru” is the radius of our universe …

NOW,  for the FINAL step, one needs to look at the Q^2″ in EQN.#7a:  this is the square of the TOTAL of all the tiny ELECTRIC CHARGEs [electrons + positrons] which compose the ordinary matter in our universe … Regarding this, there is yet one more blessing:  in Sternglass’s model,  THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONs AND POSITRONs IN OUR UNIVERSE —(ie, the number of ep-PAIRs)— IS A KNOWN QUANTITY !!   Sternglass says that the number of electron masses needed to equal the mass of our universe is approximately 1.736 x 10^(85) [p.211, Ref.#1] …

{ when he says “electrons” he means “electrons and positrons” as one can verify by doing the math:  each ep-PAIR weighs approx. 2 x Me  =  2 x (9.11 x 10^(-28) gram) = 1.822 x 10^(-27) gram:  he gives the mass of our universe as approx. 1.581 x 10^(58) grams [TABLE 1, p.234, Ref.#1] … Dividing the big number by the little number gives  8.68 x 10^(84)  as the number of ep-PAIRs:  so 2x that is the number of electrons + positrons, which Sternglass refers to as just simply “electrons” … His thinking here is that a “positron” is just simply an “electron” which carries the opposite electric charge } …

So the TOTAL ELECTRIC CHARGE on the gigantic electric capacitor which was once the “PRIMEVAL ATOM” would be equivalent to [Mu / 2xMe] x Qe;  because, for the CAPACITANCE CALCULATION, each ep-PAIR represents ONE unit of charge … This unit [“Qe”] is well known to be approx. 1.602 x 10^(-19) coulomb …

Putting all this together gives:  Q^2  =  [ (Mu x Qe) / (2 x Me) ]^2  =  (1/4) x [ (Mu x Qe) / (Me) ]^2    (EQN.#8);  combining EQNs. #7a + #8  gives:  Mu x c^2  =  [ (K x Qe x Qe) x (Mu^2) x D ] / [ (Me^2) x (Ru^2) ] … One can rearrange this to say:  D  =  [ c^2 x (Me^2) x (Ru)^2 ] / [ (K x Qe x Qe) x Mu ]    (EQN.#9);

NOTE:   “c”  “Me” and “(K x Qe x Qe)”  are KNOWN quantities,  while, as already mentioned,  in Sternglass’s model,  “Ru”  and  “Mu”  are also KNOWN … But what about  “D”  ??

Using numeric values   c = 3 x 10^(10) cm/sec,   Me = 9.11 x 10^(-28) gram,   (K x Qe x Qe) = 2.3 x 10^(-19) / sec.sec,  Ru = 2.35 x 10^(30) cm,   and  Mu = 1.58 x 10^(58) grams],   one calculates a value of approx. 1.14 x 10^(-12) cm  for  “D”;   

NOTE:  this tiny distance is analogous to the gap between the “plates” in an ordinary CAPACITOR … If our universe was once, in effect, a gigantic capacitor,  then one might expect the average gap between the oppositely-charged electrons and positrons at that time, (before the big bang), to be approx. that tiny size:  ie, approx. the size of an average atomic nucleus,  which is also approx. the size of one of the “epola-cells” in Dr.Simhony’s model,  when a SMALL atomic nucleus is inside it, which causes the cell to expand a bit [Ref.#2] [Ref.#6] …

IN OTHER WORDs:  this numeric value, calculated from theory, is  IN THE RIGHT BALL-PARK  …  So the idea to model the primeval atom in Dr.Sternglass’s’s model [Ref.#1] as a very large CAPACITOR might turn out to be sensible and rational and doable …..

$$$$$$$$$$$ << END of APPENDIX2 >> $$$$$$$$$$$


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